- (1895-1952)politician; combined a relentless commitment to socialism with unqualified nationalism. Born in middle-class circumstances in the West Prussian town of Kulm (now Poland's* Chelmno), he soon became aware of the ethnoreligious conflict between Germans and Poles. In August 1914 he requested emergency exiting exams (Notabitur) from Gymnasium and volunteered for the army; four months later a shrapnel wound cost him his right arm. Awarded the Iron Cross (Second Class), he lived with pain the remainder of his life. After a year of convalescence he began studies in law and political science (he took a doctorate in 1926). In January 1918, with Konrad Haenisch as his sponsor, he joined the SPD. A dynamic spokesman for the Party and the Association of Disabled War Veterans, he served during the Revolution with Greater Berlin's* Workers' and Soldiers' Council.*After the war Schumacher passed state exams and worked briefly for the Labor Ministry. He was well into his doctoral work when he set his thesis aside in 1920 to assume editorial duties in Stuttgart for the Schwabische Tagwacht, an SPD newspaper*; the next decade was devoted to politics in Württemberg. He was a hard worker, unsparing in his attacks on opponents, and his dedication attracted leading functionaries. Meanwhile, young Social Democrats were drawn by his charisma and intellect. Caustic and sometimes ruthless, he relished battle and seemed to provoke it. Although older functionaries viewed him with sus-picion, he was elected to Wurttemberg's Landtag in 1924 (where he soon mas-tered complex legislative issues), became chairman of the Stuttgart Party organization in July 1930, and gained a Reichstag* seat in September 1930. Joining his faction's executive, he attracted a small number of younger SPD deputies to a more militant support of the Republic. He was an outspoken critic of Chancellor Heinrich Brüning.*Schumacher despised federalism; in his first Landtag speech he argued that nothing was more important than "the unity of the Reich." Lumping the KPD and the NSDAP together as enemies of the democratic order, he organized his first anti-Nazi demonstration in 1921. In a 1932 parliamentary clash he gained fame by calling Joseph Goebbels* a "presumptuous dwarf." Never a pacifist, he advocated a strong defense (albeit one committed to the Republic), was re-sponsible in 1924 for organizing the Stuttgart unit of the Reichsbanner,* and helped form the Iron Front in December 1931. Although his view of Marxism has inspired debate, his doctoral thesis, which treated the working-class party in a bourgeois state, fostered a reformism worthy of Ferdinand Lassalle.A critic of Franz von Papen* and Kurt von Schleicher*—he dubbed them cryptofascists—Schumacher believed that should the NSDAP come to power, its tenure would be brief. He refused to go into exile when Hitler* became Chancellor. Arrested in July 1933, he spent ten years in concentration camps— eight at Dachau. Near death, he was released in March 1943. After World War II, his health irrevocably damaged, he became SPD chairman and leader of the Bundestag faction. He was praised for his courage, but because he mixed rigid nationalism with an autocratic nature, his death was greeted with both tears and relief.REFERENCES:Benz and Graml, Biographisches Lexikon; Cook, Ten Men; Edinger, Kurt Schumacher; Flora Lewis, "Hard-Bitten Herr Schumacher."
A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. C. Paul Vincent.
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Schumacher, Kurt — Geboren in Culm (Westpreußen) am 13. Oktober 1895, verlor Schumacher als Kriegsfreiwilliger im 1. Weltkrieg einen Arm; er studierte Jura und Nationalökonomie. 1918 wurde er Mitglied des Berliner Arbeiter und Soldatenrates. 1920 24 war er… … Universal-Lexikon
Schumacher, Kurt — ▪ German politician born October 13, 1895, Kulm, Germany died August 20, 1952, Bonn, West Germany German politician and first chairman of the revived Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands; SPD) after… … Universalium
Kurt Schumacher — (* 13. Oktober 1895 in Culm, Westpreußen; † 20. August 1952 in Bonn; vollständiger Name: Curt Ernst Carl Schumacher) war ein deutscher Politiker. Er war Parteivorsitzender der SPD von 1946 bis 1952 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kurt Schumacher — Kurt Schumacher. Kurt Schumacher (nacido el 13 de octubre de 1895 en Culm actualmente en Polonia, fallecido el 20 de agosto de 1952 en Bonn a la edad de 56 años, fue un político alemán jefe del SPD una vez finalizada la Segunda Guerra Mundial … Wikipedia Español
Kurt Reinhard (Musikwissenschaftler) — Kurt August Georg Reinhard (* 27. August 1914 in Gießen; † 18. Juli 1979 ebenda) war ein deutscher Musikethnologe und Komponist. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Beruflicher Werdegang 2 Bedeutung als Musikethnologe 3 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kurt Schumacher — This article is about the German politician. For the American football player, see Kurt Schumacher (American football). Kurt Schumacher As witness during the Nuremberg Trials Chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany … Wikipedia
Kurt Schumacher — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Schumacher. Kurt Schumacher Kurt Schumacher (né le 13 octobre 1895 à Culm en Prusse aujourd hui … Wikipédia en Français
Kurt Funk — Herbert Wehner (1966) Herbert Richard Wehner (* 11. Juli 1906 in Dresden; † 19. Januar 1990 in Bonn) war ein deutscher Politiker. Er war von 1966 bis 1969 Bundesminister für gesamtdeutsche Fragen, ans … Deutsch Wikipedia
Schumacher — ist ein verbreiteter deutscher Familienname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Der Name ist abgeleitet von der Berufsbezeichnung des Schuhmachers. Varianten Schuhmacher Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H … Deutsch Wikipedia
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